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Volume 11 (3); September 2012
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Review
Pathophysiology of Vestibular Migr
Sun Young Oh, Tae Ho Yang
Res Vestib Sci. 2012;11(3):81-87.
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  • 36 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Vestibular migraine (VM) is an increasingly recognized cause of episodic recurrent vertigo. However, the pathophysiology of VM is still a matter of speculation. An understanding of the relationship between migraine and the vestibular system increases knowledge of the pathogenesis of both migraine and vertigo. The pathophysiology of VM has been known to be related to cortical spreading depression, neurotransmitters (i.e., serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine, calcitonin gene-related peptide) and calcium ion channel disorder. Moreover, VM is related with Meniere's disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, motion sickness, cerebellar dysfunction, or comorbid psychotic disorder. This review refines recently proposed pathophysiological concept for VM and relationships between migraine and other related disorders.
Original Articles
Gender Difference of Clinical Characteristics in Meniere’s Disease
Se Young An, Hye Ran Son, Myung Whan Suh, Chung Ku Rhee, Jae Yun Jung
Res Vestib Sci. 2012;11(3):88-91.
  • 1,884 View
  • 15 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Objectives: Meniere’s disease (MD) is a clinical cluster of common symptoms by various causes rather than a single disease entity. Many causes such as autoimmune, allergy, vascular insufficiency have been thought to be related with Meniere’s disease. We assumed that different pathologic mechanisms have contribution in each gender. With this premise, we compared clinical characteristics between male and female patients to determine if there is any difference indicating heterogeneous underlying pathology. Materials and Methods: We reviewed medical records of 61 patients (43 female, 18 male) who were diagnosed as unilateral definite MD and underwent vestibular function test and audiologic evaluation (more than two times of pure tone audiometry during the follow-up period) from October 2005 to December 2011. Results: The average duration of dizziness in females was longer than in males. In the worst ipsilateral pure tone audiometry, low frequency thresholds were lower in females than in males. Female had lesser hearing difference at all frequencies between the sides and showed more hearing fluctuation than male. There was no significant difference between male and female in the vestibular function test. Conclusion: These results are insufficient to suggest that the pathogenesis of MD differs between the genders. However, some differences between the genders prompt a need for future studies involving more patients.
Cervical Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential and Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential in Patients With Vestibular Neuritis and Acute Viral Labyrinthitis
Il Ha Moon, Chan Goo Lee, Moo Kyun Park, Jong Dae Lee
Res Vestib Sci. 2012;11(3):92-96.
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  • 100 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Objectives: Vestibular neuritis predominantly affects the superior branch of the vestibular nerve, resulting in vertigo. Acute viral labyrinthitis occurs when an infection affects both vestibulo-cochlear nerve and labyrinth, resulting in hearing changes as well as vertigo. The purpose of study is to identify there is a difference of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) and ocular VEMP (oVEMP) in patients with vestibular neuritis and acute viral labyrinthitis. Materials and Methods: cVEMP and oVEMP tests using 500-Hz tone-burst stimuli were performed on patients with vestibular neuritis and acute viral labyrinthitis. Pure tone audiometry, caloric test and subjective visual vertical (SVV) were performed in all patients. We compared the VEMP results, SVV, caloric test in patients with vestibular neuritis and acute viral labyrinthitis. Results: Abnormal cVEMP responses were detected in 2 (20%) patients with vestibular neuritis and 5 (100%) patients with labyrinthitis. Abnormal oVEMP responses were detected in 9 patients (90%) with vestibular neuritis and 5 (100%) patients with labyrinthitis. oVEMP abnormalities is correlated with caloric test and subjective visual vertical in patients with vestibular neuritis and labyrinthits. Conclusion: Our results shows that the response of cVEMP and oVEMP between patients with vestibular neuritis and acute viral labyrinthitis is different. We can infer that oVEMP response to air-conducted sound is different vestibular origin compared to cVEMP and may originate from utricle.
Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials Produced by Stimulation With Bone-conducted Vibration in Healthy Subjects
Tae Ho Yang, Sun Young Oh, Tae Woo Kim, Byoung Soo Shin, Jun Young Lee, Seul Ki Jeong, Man Wook Seo
Res Vestib Sci. 2012;11(3):97-104.
  • 1,683 View
  • 15 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background and Objectives: To provide the empirical basis for using ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs) in response to bone-conducted vibration (BCV) stimulation to indicate vestibular function in normal subjects. Materials and Methods: In response to bone-conducted tone burst (90 dB nHL and 100 dB nHL with frequencies 500 Hz and 1,000 Hz, the oVEMPs were measured in 45 healthy controls. The early negative component (n10) of the oVEMP to brief BCV of the forehead and at each mastoid process is recorded by surface electromyography electrodes just beneath the eyes. We used a hand-held vibrator (Bruel and Kjaer 4810 Mini-Shaker) placed on the forehead, in the midline at the hairline (Fz) and at each mastoid process and quantified the individual differences in n10 magnitude, latency and symmetry to Fz and mastoid BCV at each frequency. Results: In normal subjects, n10 responses were symmetrical in the two eyes during Fz and both mastoid stimuli and the latencies of the onset were consistent among subjects. Response rate is similar between Fz and mastoid stimuli. However, at each stimulation site, response rate is higher on 500 Hz than on 1,000 Hz stimulation. During the mastoid stimuli, the onset latency is slightly shorter and amplitude is larger than the Fz stimuli. The average amplitudes decreased with age and average latency (to peak) increased slightly with increasing age. Conclusion: Clear oVEMP responses to bone-conducted Fz and mastoid stimuli were evoked from normal subjects. It is concluded that bone-conducted stimuli as well as air conduction can evoke myogenic potentials from the ocular muscles.
Case Report
Apogeotropic Positional Nystagmus in Pontine Infarction
Hye Ran Son, Jae Yun Jung, Myung Whan Suh
Res Vestib Sci. 2012;11(3):105-109.
  • 2,219 View
  • 24 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
It is thought that horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common cause of apogeotropic direction-changing positional nystagmus (DCPN). But there are many reports about cerebellar or brainstem lesions as the cause of apogeotropic DCPN. We also report a 72-year-old male patient who showed apogeotropic DCPN, but was proven to have a pontine infarction. The patients complained of disequilibrium which has lasted for 3-4 years and aggravated recently. The symptom was present only when he stood up, and was absent as soon as he sat down. He was not able to successfully perform the Romberg test and tandem gait on physical examination. Vestibular function test revealed apogeotropic DCPN without spontaneous nystagmus. Rotation chair test and caloric test results were all within normal limit. On the brain magnetic resonance imaging, newly detected infarction in the left basal ganglia, pons and right parietal lobe was found. Although horizontal canal BPPV is the most common cause of apogeotropic DCPN, we should be aware that there can be patients with central origin DCPN. In this report, we present the detailed history of this patient and tried to point out the clues to suspect central lesion in patients with apogeotropic DCPN.

Res Vestib Sci : Research in Vestibular Science