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Volume 18 (2); June 2019
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Reviews
Dizziness in Traumatic Brain Injury: Visual-Vestibular Dysfunction, Neurotological Approach
Seong-Hae Jeong
Res Vestib Sci. 2019;18(2):27-31.   Published online June 15, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2019.18.2.27
  • 5,978 View
  • 115 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) could give rise to variable clinical manifestations based on the involved structures of our bodies. Although there are no structural abnormalities proven, the patients with mild TBI suffer from chronic dizziness and imbalance. Herein, I will discuss the visuo-vestibular interaction and neurotological finding in TBI, which could demonstrate the clue to the diagnosis and management in dizzy patients with TBI.
Vestibular Rehabilitation after Traumatic Head Injury with Dizziness
Sung Kyun Kim, Seok Min Hong
Res Vestib Sci. 2019;18(2):32-37.   Published online June 15, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2019.18.2.32
  • 4,772 View
  • 153 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The vestibular symptoms such as dizziness and imbalance that occurred after traumatic head/brain injury were caused by a combination of central factors such as abnormalities of white matter, diffuse axonal injury and microhemorrhage, and peripheral factors like decreased vestibulo-ocular reflex caused by the energy transmitted to the semicircular canal and otolith organs. These symptoms can affect on the patient's overall physical, cognitive, emotional, and quality of life. There have been reports that vestibular rehabilitation for the treatment of dizziness and imbalance after head trauma can promote vestibular compensation, stabilize of the gaze movements, and also affect the treatment outcomes of the associated injuries. The frequency, duration, and number of people participating in vestibular rehabilitation varied with each study, and physical therapy, occupational therapy, cognitive counseling, medication treatment, duration of treatment for associated injuries were also variable. Most studies have shown that many patients who get the vestibular rehabilitation have a significantly reduced time to return to work and sports activities, and may be able to speed up the recovery of vestibular symptoms. However, further research is needed on its long-term effects. In addition, patients with traumatic head/brain injuries are more susceptible to injuries of other organs as well as vestibular disorders, therefore consideration of treatment planning for associated injuries including precise evaluation mental support, and cognitive therapy is expected to be more effective with vestibular rehabilitation therapy.
Original Articles
Characteristics of Nystagmus during Attack of Vestibular Migraine
Soyeon Yoon, Mi Joo Kim, Minbum Kim
Res Vestib Sci. 2019;18(2):38-42.   Published online June 15, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2019.18.2.38
  • 5,130 View
  • 137 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study is to investigate characteristics of nystagmus during attacks of vestibular migraine (VM), and to find a distinct clinical feature compared to other migraine and peripheral vestibular disorders.
Methods
This study is a retrospective chart review of 82 patients satisfied with VM criteria, which is formulated by the new Bárány Society. Spontaneous and positional nystagmus provoked by various head positions were examined with video-nystagmography in all patients. Bithermal caloric test and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential test (cVEMP) were also performed. The direction and peak slow-phase velocity (SPV) of nystagmus, unilateral caloric weakness and interaural difference of cVEMP were analyzed. Control groups were lesion side in acute VN for nystagmus results and healthy side in the patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo of posterior semicircular canal for caloric and cVEMP results. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used for statistical analysis.
Results
During the acute attack, nystagmus was seen in 71.9% (59 of 82) of patients. Horizontal nystagmus was the predominant type. Peak SPV in VM patients was much slower than in the control group (2.37±1.73 °/sec vs. 17.05±12.69 °/sec, p<0.0001). There was no significant difference on the result of both caloric and cVEMP test, compared to those of control groups.
Conclusion
Nystagmus with horizontal directions and low SPV was dominant form in the attack of VM. Close observation of nystagmus can be helpful to make a correct diagnosis and to understand the pathomechanism of vertigo in VM.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Vestibular Migraine: A Recent Update on Diagnosis and Treatment
    Young Seo Kim, Hak Seung Lee
    Research in Vestibular Science.2022; 21(3): 67.     CrossRef
Shoe-Type Wearable Sensors Measure Gait Parameters in Vestibular Neuritis: A Preliminary Study
Jun Sang Cha, Dong Young Kim, Hye Soon Lee, Nambeom Kim, Hwan Ho Lee
Res Vestib Sci. 2019;18(2):43-49.   Published online June 15, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2019.18.2.43
  • 6,631 View
  • 126 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Despite patients with dizziness were reported of revealing gait problems, there is still lack of objective quantitative measurement of gait patterns of peripheral vestibular disorders. To demonstrate gait variability in acute unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit, we evaluated the differences in gait patterns between vestibular neuritis (VN) patients and healthy subjects by the use of shoe-type inertial measurement unit (IMU) with sensors mounted.
Methods
Between April 2017 and January 2019, 30 patients diagnosed with unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit presumed to be caused by VN were enrolled in this study. The shoe-type IMU was used to analysis subjects. We assessed gait speed, cadence, stride length, stance phase, normalized stride length, normalized step length, phase coordination index and gait asymmetry of data from shoe-type IMU sensors with the walking protocol. We tested 30 healthy volunteers as control group.
Results
We identified spatiotemporal parameters of human gait. The gait speed of patients with VN was decreased to 3.82±0.8 compared to 4.93±1.08 in control group. In addition, there were differences in normalized stride length, normalized gait speed and related gait parameters, when comparing VN group and control group.
Conclusion
Gait analysis by the use of shoe-type IMU could provide important information regarding vestibular pathophysiology in patients with VN. Gait performance tests can examine gait variability quantitatively. It will be taken into consideration as a vestibular function test for patients with vertigo.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparison of Gait Parameters during Forward Walking under Different Visual Conditions Using Inertial Motion Sensors
    Eun Jin Son, Ji Hyung Kim, Hye Eun Noh, Inon Kim, Joo Ae Lim, Seung Hwan Han
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2022; 63(1): 82.     CrossRef
Case Reports
Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder Presented with Upbeat Nystagmus and Intractable Vomiting
Hyunsoo Kim, Jae-Myung Kim, Tai-Seung Nam, Seung-Han Lee
Res Vestib Sci. 2019;18(2):50-53.   Published online June 15, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2019.18.2.50
  • 6,530 View
  • 91 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease of central nervous system characterized by relapsing attacks that target the optic nerves and spinal cord, as well as aquaporin-4 (AQP4) enriched periventricular brain regions. The area postrema (AP), located in the dorsal medulla, is the chemosensitive vomiting center and has high AQP-4 expression. The AP syndrome with unexplained hiccups, nausea, and vomiting is one of the core clinical characteristics in the NMOSD and maybe the first presenting symptom. We experienced a 25-year-old woman presented with intractable vomiting, dizziness and oscillopsia. Upbeat nystagmus detected on the bedside examination led to comprehensive neurological workups including magnetic resonance imaging, and she was diagnosed as the AP syndrome. Ten months later, she experienced a recurrence as a longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis and the diagnosis was finally compatible with NMOSD without AQP4-IgG. NMOSD, especially the AP syndrome, should be considered in any dizzy patient with intractable vomiting, and detailed neuro-otologic and neuro-ophthalmologic examinations are warranted for the correct diagnosis.
Two Cases of Myasthenia Gravis Showing Fatigibility Presenting with Decreased Gain of Smooth Pursuit
Ju-Hee Chae, Hyun-June Shin, Byoung-Soo Shin, Man-Wook Seo, Sun-Young Oh
Res Vestib Sci. 2019;18(2):54-58.   Published online June 15, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2019.18.2.54
  • 5,395 View
  • 362 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies to the acetylcholine receptors of the neuromuscular junction characterized by weakness and abnormal fatigability of the muscles. Therefore, the diagnosis of MG depends on the recognition of this distinctive pattern of fatigable weakness. Previous studies presented the diagnostic efficacy of saccadic eye movements in patients with ocular MG. We here in report 2 patients of ocular MG showing the fatigue effects during repetitive sustained smooth pursuit, and the effects of the administration of edrophonium on myasthenic smooth pursuit. Changes in smooth pursuits reflecting peripheral and secondary central mechanisms were demonstrated.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Tracking Eye Movements for Diagnosis in Myasthenia Gravis: A Comprehensive Review
    Minh N. L. Nguyen, Anneke van der Walt, Joanne Fielding, Meaghan Clough, Owen B. White
    Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology.2022; 42(4): 428.     CrossRef

Res Vestib Sci : Research in Vestibular Science