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Volume 21 (1); March 2022
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Review
Clinical Significance and Update of Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome
Jung A Park, Jae Han Park
Res Vestib Sci. 2022;21(1):1-5.   Published online March 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2022.21.1.1
  • 2,715 View
  • 249 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a cerebrovascular autonomic dysfunction that is common in young women. POTS can cause dizziness due to orthostatic intolerance. In patients with orthostatic intolerance, it can be diagnosed when the heart rate increases by more than 30 beats per minute within 10 minutes of standing up through the head-up tilt test. However, even a neuro-otologist has difficulty in diagnosing POTS due to the high possibility of misdiagnosis if not paying attention. In this paper, the clinical symptoms, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of POTS are investigated. In addition, the latest knowledge of POTS is searched to help diagnose and treat POTS.
Original Article
Auto-Pattern Recognition for Diagnosis in Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Using Principal Component Analysis: A Preliminary Study
O-Hyeon Gwon, Tae Hoon Kong, Jaehong Key, Sejung Yang, Young Joon Seo
Res Vestib Sci. 2022;21(1):6-18.   Published online March 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2022.21.1.6
  • 3,950 View
  • 78 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The aim of this study was to develop a filtering algorithm for raw nystagmus images and a diagnostic assistive algorithm using a principal component analysis (PCA) to distinguish the different types of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).
Methods
Fifteen video clips of clinical data with typical nystagmus patterns of BPPV (13 cases) and with normal nystamgmus (two cases) were preprocessed when applied the thresholding, morphology operation, residual noise filtering, and center point extraction stages. We analyzed multiple data clusters in a single frame via a PCA; in addition, we statistically analyzed the horizontal and vertical components of the main vector among the multiple data clusters in the canalolithiasis of the lateral semicircular canal (LSCC) and the posterior semicircular canal (PSCC).
Results
We obtained a clear imaginary pupil and data on the fast phases and slow phases after preprocessing the images. For a normal patient, a round shape of clustered dots was observed. Patients with LSCC showed an elongated horizontal shape, whereas patients with PSCC showed an oval shape at the (x, y) coordinates. The scalar values (mm) of the horizontal component of the main vector when performing a PCA between the LSCC- and PSCC-BPPV were substantially different (102.08±20.11 vs. 32.36±12.52 mm, respectively; p=0.0012). Additionally, the salar ratio of horizontal to vertical components in LSCC and PSCC exhibited a significant difference (16.11±10.74 mm vs. 2.61±1.07 mm, respectively; p=0.0023).
Conclusions
The data of a white simulated imaginary pupil without any background noise can be a separate monitoring option, which can aid clinicians in determining the types of BPPV exhibited. Therefore, this analysis algorithm will provide assistive information for diagnosis of BPPV to clinicians.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Development of An Algorithm for Slippage-Induced Motion Artifacts Reduction in Video-Nystagmography
    Yerin Lee, Young Joon Seo, Sejung Yang
    Research in Vestibular Science.2022; 21(4): 104.     CrossRef
Case Reports
Dissociated Vertical-Torsional Nystagmus in Vestibular Nucleus Lesion
Hyun-Sung Kim, Eun Hye Oh, Jae-Hwan Choi
Res Vestib Sci. 2022;21(1):19-23.   Published online March 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2022.21.1.19
  • 2,631 View
  • 75 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Dissociated vertical-torsional nystagmus is a unique form of nystagmus characterized by conjugate torsional but disparate vertical components. It has been mainly reported in internuclear ophthalmoplegia or medial medullary lesion involving the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF). The patterns of the nystagmus may be explained by a disruption of vestibulo-ocular reflex pathways from vertical semicircular canal or utriculo-ocular reflex within the MLF, but it is debatable. We described a dissociated upbeat-torsional nystagmus in a patient with vestibular nucleus infarction without involvement of MLF.
Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration Presented as Acute Vertigo
Sung-Hee Kim
Res Vestib Sci. 2022;21(1):24-27.   Published online March 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2022.21.1.24
  • 2,272 View
  • 49 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration is a rare neurological manifestation of nonmetastatic malignancy. Its usual manifestation is subacute to chronic dizziness, gait ataxia, and dysarthria. There have been only a few cases of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration with acute presentation. This study describes a patient with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, who presented acute vestibular syndrome and then episodically developed horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus and gait ataxia.

Res Vestib Sci : Research in Vestibular Science