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Volume 22 (2); June 2023
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Review
Light Cupula: Recent Updates
Dong-Han Lee, Chang-Hee Kim
Res Vestib Sci. 2023;22(2):23-33.   Published online June 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2023.22.2.23
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common cause of positional vertigo and nystagmus. Direction-changing positional nystagmus (DCPN), which refers to the change in the direction of nystagmus with different head positions, is a well-known characteristic of horizontal semicircular canal BPPV. The supine head roll test is commonly used to diagnose horizontal canal BPPV. However, persistent geotropic DCPN observed during this test cannot be explained by conventional mechanisms of canalolithiasis or cupulolithiasis. The concept of a “light cupula” has been proposed to account for this unique nystagmus. In this review, we summarize the historical background, clinical features and diagnostic methods, presumed mechanisms, and treatment approaches of the light cupula phenomenon based on the available literatures up to date.
Original Articles
A Comparative Analysis of the Vestibulocochlear Function in Patients with Isolated Semicircular Canal Hypofunction Using a Video Head Impulse Test
Yu Jung Park, Min Young Lee, Ji Eun Choi, Jae Yun Jung, Jung Hwa Bahng
Res Vestib Sci. 2023;22(2):34-45.   Published online June 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2023.22.2.34
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The objective of this study was to analyze vestibulocochlear function results in patients identified with isolated semicircular canal (SCC) hypofunction using the video head impulse test (vHIT).
Methods
A retrospective review was conducted on the clinical records of 123 patients diagnosed with isolated SCC hypofunction based on vHIT results. Among these patients, 72 had isolated posterior SCC (PSCC) hypofunction, 25 had isolated lateral SCC (LSCC) hypofunction, and 26 had isolated anterior SCC (ASCC) hypofunction. Descriptive analyses were performed on various vestibulocochlear tests including pure tone audiometry, sinusoidal harmonic acceleration (SHA), spontaneous nystagmus (SN), head-shaking nystagmus (HSN), caloric testing, and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential, with results analyzed separately for each SCC hypofunction group.
Results
The study found that 66.0% of the evaluated patients exhibited abnormal results in at least one vestibulocochlear function test. PSCC hypofunction patients showed a significantly higher incidence of hearing loss compared to ASCC and LSCC hypofunction patients. LSCC hypofunction patients exhibited higher rates of corrective saccade, phase asymmetry of SHA, and SN abnormalities compared to other SCC hypofunction patients. Additionally, the rates of corrective saccade and phase asymmetry of SHA were also higher in LSCC hypofunction patients. ASCC hypofunction patients demonstrated significantly higher rates of normal corrective saccade, phase lead of SHA, and SN.
Conclusions
The analysis of this study suggests that even in cases where vHIT indicates isolated SCC hypofunction, additional vestibulocochlear function tests should be conducted to identify any associated vestibulocochlear dysfunctions. This highlights the importance of comprehensive evaluation to accurately diagnose and manage patients with SCC hypofunction.
Re-fixation Saccade at Video-Head Impulse Test in Patients with Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Dong Hyuk Jang, Sun Seong Kang, Hyun Joon Shim, Yong-Hwi An
Res Vestib Sci. 2023;22(2):46-51.   Published online June 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2023.22.2.46
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study was performed to evaluate characteristics and their prognostic value of video-head impulse test (vHIT) in sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) with vertigo.
Methods
Of the 612 patients with a diagnosis of SSNHL from 2010 to 2018, 110 patients (18.0%) with vertigo and 39 patients (6.4%) with vHIT results were recruited. The patients were evaluated for their pure-tone hearing average (at initial, 1-month, and 6-month visit), the presence of re-fixation saccade and gains at vHIT, the canal paresis (CP) at ccaloric test.
Results
Patients with saccade (+) showed higher pure-tone averages than those with saccade (‒) on initial and follow-up audiograms. The improvement in pure-tone averages was less in the saccade (+) group than in the saccade (‒) group. There was no significant difference of hearing recovery between SSNHL patients with normal gain and those with decreased gain. There was no difference of hearing improvement between CP (+) and CP (‒) groups according to the presence of re-fixation saccade.
Conclusions
Concurrent re-fixation saccade at vHIT is a negative prognostic factor of hearing function in SSNHL. Re-fixation saccade in SSNHL may suggest widespread damages to both the cochlea and the vestibule, leading to the poor prognosis.
Case Report
Acute Thiamine Deficiency Detected by Video Head Impulse Test in a Patient with Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma
Je-Woo Park, Jae-Myung Kim, Ji-Min Kim, Seung-Han Lee
Res Vestib Sci. 2023;22(2):52-56.   Published online June 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2023.22.2.52
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Thiamine deficiency may cause Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) characterized by ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion. Aside from the triad of cardinal symptoms, selective or predominant impairments of bilateral horizontal canals may be observed in WE. Here, we report a patient with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-lymphoma complicated by an early stage of WE due to thiamine deficiency manifesting bilateral vestibular dysfunctions. A 78-year-old man recently diagnosed gastric MALT-lymphoma presented with dizziness and disequilibrium for several weeks. He showed mild imbalance while tandem walking and abnormal catch-up saccades bilaterally during bedside head impulse test (HIT). Video HIT revealed decreased vestibulo-ocular reflex gains with catch-up saccades for the bilateral horizontal and several vertical canals. Diagnostic work-up demonstrated decreased serum thiamine and lesions in the mammillary body and periaqueductal gray matter on brain magnetic resonance images. Furthermore, with thiamine replacement, his clinical symptoms were markedly improved. Also, vestibular symptoms and signs may be an early manifestation of WE, and video HIT could be a useful diagnostic tool to aid early detections.
Video Report
Brun’s Nystagmus with Cerebellopontine Angle Schwannoma
Seulgi Hong, Ji-Yun Park, Seungjin Choi, Min Jee Kim
Res Vestib Sci. 2023;22(2):57-58.   Published online June 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2023.22.2.57
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Res Vestib Sci : Research in Vestibular Science