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Original Article
Clinical Outcomes of Endolymphatic Sac Decompression Surgery in Menière’s Disease
Hee Won Seo, Young Sang Cho, Won-Ho Chung
Res Vestib Sci. 2023;22(4):97-105.   Published online December 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2023.22.4.97
  • 1,455 View
  • 60 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Endolymphatic sac decompression surgery (ESDS) is one of the surgical methods for intractable Menière’s disease (MD), and it is known as a relatively safe treatment that does not cause hearing loss. However, the effectiveness and the degree of vertigo control rate of ESDS are still controversial. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of ESDS in intractable MD.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 33 patients who underwent ESDS for intractable MD from January 2002 to March 2022. Clinical characteristics of patients, pure tone threshold, medical treatment method, and number of vertigo attacks before and after surgery were assessed. The improvement of hearing and vertigo was evaluated according to the 1995 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery criteria.
Results
Of the 33 patients, the average follow-up period was 21.2 months, with immediate follow-up within 2 months (28 patients), short term between 2 and 6 months (27 patients), and long term at 12 months or later (29 patients). In the immediate hearing threshold, both air conduction and bone conduction showed slight deterioration, but there was no significant change in the long-term hearing threshold. At long-term follow-up, 12 patients (41.4%) were able to live without medication, and 18 patients (62.1%) showed improvement in their vertigo symptoms. In addition, patients who showed improvement in hearing also showed improvement in vertigo at the same time.
Conclusions
ESDS in intractable MD is a relatively safe and effective treatment method for reducing vertigo attack without worsening hearing threshold.
Case Reports
Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Presenting as Acute Unilateral Vestibulopathy
Won Jeong Son, Jieun Roh, Eun Hye Oh, Jae-Hwan Choi
Res Vestib Sci. 2023;22(4):127-131.   Published online December 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2023.22.4.127
  • 941 View
  • 15 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) is characterized by an abnormal connection between branches of arteries and veins in the dura mater. Clinical manifestations of dAVF vary depending on their location, feeder arterial supply, amount of shunting, and most importantly, their venous drainage pattern. Acute vertigo has been rarely reported as an initial presentation of dAVF due to venous congestion in the brainstem. We report a patient who presented with acute right vestibulopathy without any brainstem signs in dAVF involving the transversesigmoid sinus. The patient showed abnormal caloric response but normal head impulse in the affected ear. Without any treatment, the patient’s symptoms gradually improved with a normalization of right canal paresis. Follow-up cerebral angiography also revealed a spontaneous regression of the shunt flow and reduction of venous drainage at the right transverse-sigmoid sinus. Based on the results of vestibular function tests and cerebral angiography, acute vertigo in our patient may be ascribed to impaired reabsorption of endolymph by focal venous congestion.
A Rare Case of Isolated Infarcts of the Pons with Sudden Vertigo: Clinical Features and Imaging Findings
Dong Hwan Kwon, Eun kyung Jeon, Young Joon Seo
Res Vestib Sci. 2023;22(3):89-94.   Published online September 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2023.22.3.89
  • 1,296 View
  • 35 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Isolated infarcts of the pons (IIP) are a rare subtype of ischemic stroke, accounting for less than 1% of all strokes. It refers to a specific type of ischemic stroke that occurs within the pons region of the brain. IIP can be associated with vertebrobasilar insufficiency in certain cases. This case report describes a 64-year-old female patient who presented with acute vertigo and spontaneous nystagmus to the lesion side, ultimately diagnosed with IIP in the posterior right side of pons. Tegmental pontine infarcts typically manifest as oblique small (lacunar) infarctions that are localized in the mediolateral tegmental area of the middle to upper pons. The patient’s symptoms resolved spontaneously, but a 2-mm infarct was confirmed by brain diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. This case highlights the distinctive symptoms associated with IIP and emphasizes the importance of careful neurological examination and advanced neuroimaging techniques for accurate diagnosis.
A Case of Patient with Bilateral Cochleovestibular Function Loss due to Infratentorial Superficial Siderosis
Gyuman Lee, Youngmin Mun, Dae Bo Shim
Res Vestib Sci. 2023;22(3):83-88.   Published online September 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2023.22.3.83
Correction in: Res Vestib Sci 2023;22(4):137
  • 1,211 View
  • 32 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Superficial siderosis (SS) is a rare neurodegenerative condition characterized by hemosiderin deposition in the central nervous system, which sometimes leads to sensorineural hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. This case report details the diagnosis and treatment of a 63-year-old female patient presenting with a yearlong history of postural instability and recent symptoms of sudden right-sided hearing loss and imbalance. Physical examination and imaging revealed bilateral deafness and infratentorial SS. Treatment, including medication, vestibular exercises, high-dose steroids, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, led to a significant alleviation of dizziness but no improvement in hearing. This case emphasizes the need for clinicians to consider SS in patients presenting with sudden-onset hearing loss and dizziness, even without prior any medical history or trauma, to accurately identify the underlying cause.
A Case of Delayed Audiovestibulopathy after Posterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke
Hyun Su Lee, Eun Kyung Jeon, Dong Hwan Kwon, Tae Hoon Kong
Res Vestib Sci. 2023;22(3):77-82.   Published online September 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2023.22.3.77
  • 1,109 View
  • 33 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Distinguishing central and peripheral causes of dizziness is vital. A case is presented where a 42-year-old man with a history of posterior circulation ischemic stroke developed acute unilateral vestibulopathy with hearing loss. Clinical examination revealed signs of vestibular dysfunction on the left side. Audiometry confirmed deafness on the left, but imaging ruled out new central issues. The patient was diagnosed with audiovestibulopathy and treated with steroids, antiviral agents, intratympanic injections, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Hearing loss persisted, but dizziness improved with vestibular rehabilitation. Poststroke patients should be closely monitored for peripheral complications. Further research should explore the benefits of antiplatelet therapy in vascular-related conditions, even without clear central lesions.
Review
Canal Conversion and Reentry of Otolith in Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
Jong Sei Kim, Minbum Kim
Res Vestib Sci. 2023;22(3):59-67.   Published online September 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2023.22.3.59
  • 1,112 View
  • 59 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
During the treatment process for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) using the canalith repositioning procedure, the otolith can inadvertently enter the semicircular canal instead of the utricle. Canal conversion refers to the situation where the otolith enters a different semicircular canal, while reentry occurs when the otolith returns to the same semicircular canal. The occurrence of a canal conversion can complicate the accurate diagnosis and treatment of BPPV, potentially leading to misdiagnosis and unsuccessful results in the canalith repositioning procedure. In this review, we aim to summarize the incidence, clinical features, and associated risk factors of canal conversion and reentries.
Original Article
Re-fixation Saccade at Video-Head Impulse Test in Patients with Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Dong Hyuk Jang, Sun Seong Kang, Hyun Joon Shim, Yong-Hwi An
Res Vestib Sci. 2023;22(2):46-51.   Published online June 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2023.22.2.46
  • 1,179 View
  • 31 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study was performed to evaluate characteristics and their prognostic value of video-head impulse test (vHIT) in sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) with vertigo.
Methods
Of the 612 patients with a diagnosis of SSNHL from 2010 to 2018, 110 patients (18.0%) with vertigo and 39 patients (6.4%) with vHIT results were recruited. The patients were evaluated for their pure-tone hearing average (at initial, 1-month, and 6-month visit), the presence of re-fixation saccade and gains at vHIT, the canal paresis (CP) at ccaloric test.
Results
Patients with saccade (+) showed higher pure-tone averages than those with saccade (‒) on initial and follow-up audiograms. The improvement in pure-tone averages was less in the saccade (+) group than in the saccade (‒) group. There was no significant difference of hearing recovery between SSNHL patients with normal gain and those with decreased gain. There was no difference of hearing improvement between CP (+) and CP (‒) groups according to the presence of re-fixation saccade.
Conclusions
Concurrent re-fixation saccade at vHIT is a negative prognostic factor of hearing function in SSNHL. Re-fixation saccade in SSNHL may suggest widespread damages to both the cochlea and the vestibule, leading to the poor prognosis.
Review
Light Cupula: Recent Updates
Dong-Han Lee, Chang-Hee Kim
Res Vestib Sci. 2023;22(2):23-33.   Published online June 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2023.22.2.23
  • 2,054 View
  • 108 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common cause of positional vertigo and nystagmus. Direction-changing positional nystagmus (DCPN), which refers to the change in the direction of nystagmus with different head positions, is a well-known characteristic of horizontal semicircular canal BPPV. The supine head roll test is commonly used to diagnose horizontal canal BPPV. However, persistent geotropic DCPN observed during this test cannot be explained by conventional mechanisms of canalolithiasis or cupulolithiasis. The concept of a “light cupula” has been proposed to account for this unique nystagmus. In this review, we summarize the historical background, clinical features and diagnostic methods, presumed mechanisms, and treatment approaches of the light cupula phenomenon based on the available literatures up to date.
Original Article
Clinical Characteristics of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Positive on Bilateral Dix-Hallpike Test
Youngrok Jo, Gun Min Lee, Youn Jin Cho, Mi Joo Kim, Minbum Kim
Res Vestib Sci. 2023;22(1):14-18.   Published online March 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2023.22.1.14
  • 2,226 View
  • 72 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical characteristics of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) which showed torsional nystagmus on bilateral Dix-Hallpike test, and to analyze the clinical features of pseudo-bilateral BPPV.
Methods
This study is a retrospective chart review of a total of 341 patients diagnosed with BPPV of posterior canal (PC-BPPV). Among them, patients who showed torsional nystagmus on bilateral Dix-Hallpike test were defined as “bilateral DixHallpike positive patients,” who were classified into true- and pseudo-bilateral PC-BPPV group through analysis of nystagmus direction. And pseudo-bilateral PC-BPPV were categorized into two subtypes according to their pathomechanisms. Clinical characteristics including sex, age, underlying vestibular disorders, recurrence and the number of Epley maneuvers were analyzed. Student t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used for statistical analysis.
Results
Among 341 patients, 27 patients (7.9%) were “bilateral Dix-Hallpike positive patients”. They received more Epley maneuvers than the group of unilateral PC-BPPV until the resolution of nystagmus (2.3 vs. 1.4, p<0.001). Fifteen patients out of 27 were diagnosed with pseudo-bilateral PC-BPPV, who were classified into two subtypes according to their pathomechanisms. The number of Epley maneuvers was not different between true- and pseudo-bilateral PC-BPPV.
Conclusions
Patients with pseudo-bilateral PC-BPPV were common among “bilateral Dix-Hallpike positive patients.” For their better treatment, understanding of possible pathophysiology, accurate Dix-Hallpike test and detailed analysis of nystagmus direction are necessary.
Review
Treatment in Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: Factors that Affect Successful Treatment Outcome
Dae Bo Shim
Res Vestib Sci. 2023;22(1):1-6.   Published online March 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2023.22.1.1
  • 1,601 View
  • 69 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common etiology of benign vestibulopathy. Various treatments for BPPV have been developed, and appropriate treatments for each subtype of BPPV have been provided and used in accordance with clinical practice guidelines published by the American Academy of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery in 2008 and 2017. Although many therapeutic maneuvers have been reported to show high success rates in the treatment of BPPV patients, some cases are not effective even by appropriate therapeutic maneuvers. This article reviews various factors affecting the successful treatment of BPPV patients.
Original Articles
The Head-Bending Test in Posterior Semicircular Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
Sol-lim Choi, Hyun-Sung Kim, Jae-Hwan Choi, Eun Hye Oh
Res Vestib Sci. 2022;21(4):99-103.   Published online December 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2022.21.4.99
  • 2,072 View
  • 91 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to investigate clinical significance of a head-bending test in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) involving the posterior semicircular canal (PC-BPPV).
Methods
We retrospectively recruited 256 patients with unilateral PC-BPPV between January 2016 and December 2021, and assessed the clinical characteristics of patients showing head-bending nystagmus (HBN).
Results
Of 256 patients, 138 (53.9%) showed HBN. Most patients (n=136, 98.6%) had downbeat nystagmus with (n=38) or without (n=98) torsional component. The remaining two patients had pure upbeat and torsional nystagmus, respectively. The torsional component was directed to the contralesional side in all. Between patients with and without HBN, there were no significant differences in clinical characteristics such as age, lateralization, types of BPPV (canalolithiasis or cupulolithiasis), and success rate of repositioning maneuver.
Conclusions
Head-bending test may be useful in predicting the diagnosis and lateralization of PC-BPPV.
Development of An Algorithm for Slippage-Induced Motion Artifacts Reduction in Video-Nystagmography
Yerin Lee, Young Joon Seo, Sejung Yang
Res Vestib Sci. 2022;21(4):104-110.   Published online December 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2022.21.4.104
  • 1,808 View
  • 58 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
The slippage of the video-nystagmography devices causes motion artifacts in the trajectory of the pupil and thus results in distortion in the nystagmus waveform. In this study, the moving average was proposed to reduce slippage-induced motion artifacts from the real-world data obtained in the field.
Methods
The dataset consists of an infrared video of positional tests performed on eight patients with a lateral semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. The trajectories of the pupil were obtained from the video with binarization, morphological operation, and elliptical fitting algorithm. The acquired data was observed and the section where the slippage occurred was labeled by an otolaryngologist. The moving average with windows of various lengths was calculated and subtracted from the original signal and evaluated to find the most adequate parameter to reduce the motion artifact.
Results
The period of nystagmus in the given data was found to be ranged from 0.01 to 4 seconds. The slippages that appeared in the data can be categorized into fast and slow slippages. The length, distance, and speed of trajectories in the slippage ranges were also measured to find the characteristics of the motion artifact in video-nystagmography data. The shape of the nystagmus waveform was preserved, and the motion artifacts were reduced in both types of slippages when the length of the window in moving average was set to 1 second.
Conclusions
The algorithm developed in this study is expected to minimize errors caused by slippage when developing a diagnostic algorithm that can assist clinicians.
Canal Dysfunction Detected by Video Head Impulse Test in Patients with Vestibular Migraine and Its Relationship with Symptomatic Improvement
Ji Won Choi, Won Sub Lim, Sung Seok Ryu, Yeonjoo Choi, Sang Hun Lee, Seung Cheol Ha, Hong Ju Park
Res Vestib Sci. 2022;21(2):46-52.   Published online June 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2022.21.2.46
  • 2,506 View
  • 53 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Video head impulse test (vHIT) can evaluate function of the vestibuloocular reflex for high frequency range of head rotation. We aimed to characterize the abnormal patterns of canal dysfunction by vHIT in vestibular migraine (VM) and evaluate the relationship between the presence of canal dysfunction and symptomatic improvement.
Methods
Eighty-seven patients with VM were included. Abnormality of vHIT at the initial examination was determined by the vHIT gain and the degrees of the corrective saccades at each canal and each side. The relationship between the abnormal patterns and the symptomatic improvement (no need for preventive medication) after modification of life styles and preventive medications for 1, 3, and 6 months was evaluated.
Results
Abnormal vHIT of the lateral canal was 13.8% when determined by the gain criteria and 31.0% when based on both gain and corrective saccade, regardless of the side. Abnormal vHIT of the superior and posterior canals were 18.4% and 27.6%, regardless of the side. Abnormal vHIT at any canal and side was observed in 47%. Patients showed symptomatic improvement in 29.9%, 71.3%, and 88.5% after modification of life styles and preventive medications for 1, 3, and 6 months. Abnormal vHIT results of canals were significantly related to the poor response to preventive mediations.
Conclusions
Prolonged preventive medication was required for symptomatic improvement in VM patients when vHIT results of any canals were abnormal, suggesting that peripheral vestibular abnormality is closely related to the pathophysiology of vestibular migraine.
Case Report
Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration Presented as Acute Vertigo
Sung-Hee Kim
Res Vestib Sci. 2022;21(1):24-27.   Published online March 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2022.21.1.24
  • 2,464 View
  • 49 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration is a rare neurological manifestation of nonmetastatic malignancy. Its usual manifestation is subacute to chronic dizziness, gait ataxia, and dysarthria. There have been only a few cases of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration with acute presentation. This study describes a patient with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, who presented acute vestibular syndrome and then episodically developed horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus and gait ataxia.
Original Article
Study on Platelet Indices in Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
Byeong Min Lee, Chae Dong Yim, Dong Gu Hur, Seong-Ki Ahn
Res Vestib Sci. 2021;20(4):141-146.   Published online December 15, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2021.20.4.141
  • 2,947 View
  • 79 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is one of the most common causes of dizziness. Even though the etiology of BPPV has been widely studied, the exact mechanism remains still unclear. One of the possible factors explaining the pathophysiology of BPPV is ischemia of vestibule. In the present study, we have focused on the platelet indices including mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and platelet crit (PCT) to assess a risk of vestibule ischemia causing BPPV.
Methods
From January 2021 to March 2021, a retrospective review was performed on 39 patients diagnosed with BPPV through vestibular nystagmography. For each platelet indices, a comparative analysis was conducted between the patient group and control group.
Results
There were no significant differences when the platelet, MPV, PDW, and PCT values were compared between the study and control group. Rather, the control group showed higher PDW value than the study group.
Conclusions
Ischemia of vestibule is one of the well-known causes of BPPV, but the current study showed that BPPV cannot be explained by the vestibule ischemia itself. Further studies are needed to identify the potential of ischemia regarding BPPV by approaching with other methods with a large study group.

Res Vestib Sci : Research in Vestibular Science